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Michael Stavola portrait

Michael Stavola


Department Chair

Lewis Lab 216

Ph.D. in Physics (with D.L. Dexter), University of Rochester, May, 1980

B.S. in Physics and Engineering, Trinity College, May, 1975

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Research Areas

Additional Interests

  • Innovative use of spectroscopy in the study of point defects in non-metallic solids
  • Ultrawide-bandgap semiconductors
  • Mechanism for conductivity of transparent-conducting oxides
  • Light-mass elements in silicon solar-cell materials
  • Band gap shifts of dilute nitrides
  • Hydrogen-related defects and light-element impurities
  • Control of doping in semiconductors
  • Infrared spectroscopy and uniaxial stress techniques

Research Statement

Understanding defects and impurities is essential to understanding electronic and photonic materials and the devices made from them.  The goal of Stavola’s research program is to determine and understand the fundamental properties of defects in semiconductors and transparent conducting oxides that are important in technology.




Michael Stavola received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Rochester in 1980 and was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, from 1980-1989.  Stavola then joined the faculty of Lehigh University where he is the Sherman Fairchild Professor of Physics.  He is chair of the Department of Physics (2003-2009, 2021-present) and was an Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences (2009-2012).

Stavola is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the Institute of Physics (United Kingdom).  He received a Humboldt Research Award for Senior US Scientists and received Lehigh’s Libsch Award for excellence in research in 2014.

Effect of H on the conductivity of transparent conducting oxides

- A. Portoff, S. Venzie, M. Stavola, W. B. Fowler, and S. J. Pearton, Determination of dielectric axes and transition moment directions in β-Ga2O3 from the polarization dependence of vibrational spectra, J. Appl. Phys. 127, 055702 (2020).

- Y. Qin, M. Stavola, W. B. Fowler, P. Weiser, and S. J. Pearton, Hydrogen centers in β-Ga2O3: infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory, ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 8, Q3103 (2019).

- P. Weiser, M. Stavola, W. B. Fowler, Y. Qin, and S. J. Pearton, Structure and vibrational properties of the dominant O-H center in β-Ga2O3, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 232104 (2018).

- P. Weiser, Y. Qin, W. Yin, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, and L.A. Boatner, Symmetry and diffusivity of the interstitial hydrogen shallow-donor center in In2O3, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 202105 (2016).

- W. Yin, Y. Qin, W.B. Fowler, M. Stavola, and L.A. Boatner, Interstitial hydrogen in VO2: vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory, J. Phys. Cond. Matter 28, 395401 (2016).

- W. Yin, K. Smithe, P. Weiser, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, L. Boatner, S.J. Pearton, D.C. Hays, and S.G. Koch, Hydrogen centers and the conductivity of In2O3 single crystals,  Phys. Rev. B 91, 075208 (2015).

- F. Bekisli, W. B. Fowler, and M. Stavola, Small polaron characteristics of an OD center in TiO2 studied by infrared spectroscopyPhys. Rev. B 86, 155208 (2012).

- F. Bekisli, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, L. Boatner, E. Spahr, and G. Lupke, Hydrogen impurities and shallow donors in SnO2 studied by infrared spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035213 (2011).

- G. A. Shi, M. Stavola, and W. B. Fowler, Identification of an OH-Li center in ZnO, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081201(R) (2006).

- G.A. Shi, M. Saboktakin, J. Stavola, and S.J. Pearton, “Hidden Hydrogen” in as-grown ZnO, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5601 (2004).

Impurities in Si solar cells materials

- M. Stavola, S.K. Estreicher, and M. Stavola, Light-element impurities and their reactions in multicrystalline Si, Solid State Phenomena 205-206, 201 (2014).

- H. Zhang, M. Stavola, and M. Seacrist, Nitrogen-containing point defects in multicrystalline Si solar-cell materials, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093707 (2013).

- C. Peng, H. Zhang, M. Stavola, V. Yelundur, A. Rohatgi, L. Carnel, M. Seacrist, and J. Kalejs, Interaction of hydrogen with carbon in multicrystalline Si solar-cell materials, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053517 (2011).

- S. Kleekajai, F. Jiang, M. Stavola, V. Yelundur, K. Nakayashiki, A. Rohatgi, G. Hahn, S. Seren, and J. Kalejs, Concentration and penetration depth of H introduced into crystalline Si by hydrogenation methods used to fabricate solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093517 (2006).

- F. Jiang, M. Stavola, A. Rohatgi, D. Kim, J. Holt, H. Atwater, J. Kalejs, Hydrogenation of Si from SiNx(H) films: Characterization of H introduced into the Si. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 931 (2003).

Band gap shift of dilute III-N-V alloys caused by H

- L. Wen, F. Bekisli, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, R. Trotta, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, S. Rubini, and F. Martelli, Detailed structure of the H-N-H center in GaAs1-yNy revealed by vibrational spectroscopy under uniaxial stress, Phys. Rev. B 81, 233201 (2010).

- F. Jiang, M. Stavola, M. Capizzi, A. Polimeni, A. Amore Bonapasta, and F. Filippone, Vibrational spectroscopy of hydrogenated GaAs1-yNy: A structure-sensitive test of an H2* model, Phys. Rev. B 69, 041309(R) (2004).

H2 in Si

- C. Peng, M. Stavola, W. B. Fowler, and M. Lockwood, Ortho-para transition of interstitial H2 and D2 in Si, Phys. Rev. B 80, 125207 (2009).

- G.A. Shi, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, E E. Chen, Rotational-vibrational transitions of interstitial HD in Si, Phys. Rev. B 72, 085207 (2005).

- M. Stavola, E E. Chen, W.B. Fowler, G.A. Shi, Interstitial H2 in Si: Are all problems solved, Physica B 340-342, 58 (2003).

- E E. Chen, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, and P. Walters, Key to understanding interstitial H2 in Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105507 (2002).


- Identification of Defects in Semiconductors, edited by M. Stavola, Volumes 51A (1998) and 51B (1999) in the series Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston).

- S. J. Pearton, J.W. Corbett, and M. Stavola, Hydrogen in Crystalline Semiconductors, (Springer-Verlag, Heidelburg, 1992).

Book Chapters

- Microscopic structure of NHn complexes in dilute nitride semiconductors revealed by their vibrational properties, M. Stavola and W.B. Fowler, in Hydrogenated Dilute Nitride Semiconductors: Theory, Properties, and Applications, ed. G. Ciatto (Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2015), Chapt. 5, p. 129.

- Hydrogen in Si and Ge, S.K. Estreicher, M. Stavola, and J. Weber, in Silicon, Germanium, and Their Alloys: Growth, Defects, Impurities, and Nanocrystals, edited by G. Kissinger and S. Pizzini (CRC Press 2014), Chap. 7.

- Vibrational Spectroscopy of Light Element Impurities in Semiconductors, M. Stavola, Chapt. 3 in Identification of Defects in Semiconductors, edited by M. Stavola, Vol. 51B in the series Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston, 1998)


Physics of Solids (PHY 363)
Introductory Physics I (PHY 11)